Instrument Training

Specialized training is performed on a large range of instruments ranging from Specrtophotometry , Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry to Molecular Instrumentation. This Training is supplied by qualified and experienced staff.

Training modules introduce participants to:

  - Basic principles of the instrument.

  - Software basics from how to control the equipment, make an injection and set parameters to data interpretation.

  - Hands-on Training.

  - Troubleshooting and preventive maintenance.


Training on the fundamentals of the following instruments in either Applied Toxicology or Molecular Diagnostics is currently available.

For more details, click on the selected instrument below.

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AA) is an analytical instrument that measures the concentrations of elements. It makes use of the absorption of light by these elements in order to determine their concentrations.

The course, designed to present the basic concepts of AA, includes

-    Overview of AA theory.

-    Instrumentation of AA-6300 (Shimadzu).

-    Features and operation of AA Wizard.

-    Practical sessions for flame and graphite AA-6300.

-    Basic AA maintenance.

UV and UV Probe Software Operation

An Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) measures the absorption in the ultraviolet-visible region. UV-Vis is the method of choice in most laboratories concerned with the identification and measurement of organic and inorganic compounds in a wide range of products and processes

including nucleic acids and proteins, food components and pharmaceutical drugs.UV Probe Software is designed for instrument control and data analysis and it is user-friendly enough to accommodate every level of operation from beginner to advance.                                

This course introduces                                                              

- Theory and Principle of UV (UV-2450 Shimadzu).

- Instrumentation of UV.

- Operation of UV-Vis instrument by UV Probe software.

Gas Chromatography

A gas chromatograph (GC) is an analytical instrument that separate and detects various components in the sample injected into the instrument, transported by a gas mobile phase into a separation column and the quantity of the components exiting the column are detected.

This course covers the basic principles, instrumentation, applications, maintenance and troubleshooting of GC, focusing on the Shimadzu GC-2010 system with GC solution software.Qualitative and quantitative analyses, basic operation of the GC solution software, selection of capillary column, as well as few basic sample handling techniques will be discussed in the applications part.                                    

The course comprises:

- Basic principles of Gas Chromatography.

- Instrumentation of GC-2010.

- Applications of Gas Chromatography.

- Introduction to GC solution software and practical session.

- Basic maintenance and troubleshooting for GC-2010.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Liquid chromatography is a separation technique that involves the injection of a small volume of a liquid sample into a column packed with porous particles where individual components of the sample are transported along the column, separated and then collected and identified at their exit.

HPLC for LC-10A Series with CLASS-VP Workstation or LC solution workstation (Shimadzu)

This system offers a validation report including system check and module check features, providing status information for relevant maintenance parts.

Modules of the LC-10A series include:                                                                                     

-    Theory and principles of HPLC.

-    Basic operation using the CLASS-VP or LC solution software.

-    Qualitative and quantitative Analyses.

-    Application method development.

-    Basic maintenance and troubleshooting.

HPLC for LC-2010 Series with CLASS-VP or LC solution workstation (Shimadzu)                             

LC-2010 is an advanced fully integrated HPLC system. It provides high performance and useful functions which  help do chromatography more productively. It differs from other instruments in its higher speed, larger capacity of injection and automation that frees users from repetitious daily operations.

Modules of the LC-2010 series with CLASS-VP include                                                    

-       Basic theory and principles of HPLC.

-       Detailed operation of LC-2010 instrument with the CLASS-VP or LC solution software.

-       Qualitative and quantitative analyses.


HPLC for LC-20A(prominence) Series with CLASS-VP or LC solution workstation (Shimadzu)

The LC-20A spectrum possesses a high level of stability while maintaining high performance during routine use. It allows building the optimal system for each HPLC or LCMS application and enables applications from micro to preparative LC, for use in research or Quality Assurance/Quality Control routine laboratories.

Modules of the LC-2010 series with CLASS-VP include:                                                                        

-       Basic theory and principle of HPLC.

-       Detailed operation of LC-2010 instrument with the CLASS-VP or LC solution software.

-       Qualitative and quantitative analyses.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) offers the highest performance in its class.                        

It provides fast data measurement, improved applicability in addition to improving laboratory productivity for high-speed analysis.The course covers the basic principles, instrumentation, applications, maintenance and troubleshooting of GC-MS, focusing on theShimadzu GCMS-QP2010 system.

The training module encompasses the following sections:

- Basic principles of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

- Instrumentation of GCMS – QP2010.

- Applications of GC-MS.

- Introduction to GCMS solution software and practical session.

- Basic maintenance and troubleshooting for GCMS-QP2010.

Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Liquid chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that

combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. Unlike GC, it is suitable for non-volatile and fragile molecules. It can separate a very wide array of organic components making it suitable for a large range of applications.                                                                           

The course includes:

-Principles of LC/MS and interfacing techniques.

-LCMS-2010A hardware and features.

-Basic operation using the LCMS solution workstation.

-Qualitative and quantitative analysis.


Liquid Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry

The LC-MS/MS system has a unique capability of a single quadrupole which is one of the most sensitive and specific approaches for small-molecule quantitation. The fragmentation capability of tandem mass spectrometry also provides critical information for structural elucidation of unknown compounds.

Training modules can be either on the AB-Sciex API 2000 or AB Sciex API 4000.


The Applied Biosystems API 2000 ™LC/MS/MS brings the power and accuracy of tandem mass spectrometry to a wide range of applications such as drug screening, food, environmental and forensic analyses.

LC/MS/MS:AB SCIEX API 4000                                                                                                             

The API 4000™ LC/MS/MS System is the benchmark of performance, reliability,

and dependability for quantitative analysis. It harbors the following features:

• Sensitive results for drug development

• Robust, high-throughput efficiency

• Low detection limits for trace analysis


The API 4000™ System makes it easy to get high-quality results with outstanding quantitation and precise identification of low abundance compounds in matrices such as clinical samples, pesticide/drug residues, forensic toxicology samples, environmental samples, and foods.

Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR)

Polymerase Reaction chain (PCR) is a technique that takes a specific sequence of DNA of small amounts andamplifies it to be used for further testing.

A wide range of applications can be performed such as genetic testing where  samples of DNA are analyzed for the presence of a genetic disease, genetic fingerprinting to determine the identity of a person by DNA samples, paternity testing to match individuals with their relatives, DNA Sequencing and production of Hybridization probes.

Training courses on the Instruments below are currently available:

-          MyCycler PCR System Thermal Cycler (Bio-Rad).

-          Px2 PCR System (ThermoHybaid).

-          9700 PCR system (Applied Biosystems).

Quantitative Real-time PCR

Quantitative Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) incorporates the ability to directly measure and quantify the reaction while amplification is taking place. Real-time detection of PCR products is made possible by including in the reaction a fluorescent molecule that reports an increase in the amount of DNA with a proportional increase in fluorescent signal.                                                                                            

RT-PCR is used in different applications including gene expression analysis to measure gene expression levels, genotyping/allelic discrimination to identify human variation and disease by determining DNA changes. It is also used for GMO detection where PCR methods offer advantages of higher sensitivity, accuracy and an option to detect GMO qualitatively as well as quantitatively.

Training on the following instruments is available:

-          iCycler Real- time PCR system (Bio-Rad)

-          7300 Real time PCR system (Applied Biosystems).

Genetic Analyzer

A Genetic Analyzer is used to perform DNA sequencing, sizing and allele analysis.               

Training courses on ABi Prism 310 and ABi 3130 Genetic Analyzers are designed to meet the needs of Molecular Biology laboratories and perform a range of applications such as sequencing, re-sequencing and fragment analysis streamlining in addition to allele analysis.

Microarray Plotter and scanner

Microarray technology uses a setof miniaturized chemical reaction areas that may be used to test DNA fragments, antibodies, or proteins, by using a chip with immobilised targets and hybridising them with labelled sample. The colour obtained from the chip after hybridisation is then scanned and the data is analysed by dedicated software to find the expression level.                                                                    

Examples of applications are listed below:

-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis.

-Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH).

-Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with microarray technology (Chip).

-Gene expression analysis.

-Exon/Tiling Arrays.

-Protein Arrays.

Microarray plotter Spot Array x72&ScanArray GxPLUSscanner (Perkin Elmer) will be used for training purposes.


DHPLC Nucleic Acid Fragment Analysis System

Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) is a chromatographic mutation analysis technique that is based on temperature-dependent separation of DNA containing mismatched base pairs from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA fragments.    

The WAVE DHPLC nucleic fragment analysis system performs rapid separation and quantitation of single- and double-stranded nucleic acid fragments, allowing for mutation detection and SNP discovery.

Applications of this instrument include:


-Determination of allelic imbalances.

-Measurement of changes in gene expression.

-Detection of DNA polymorphisms.

Training is carried out on a Transgenomic 4500 series DHPLC nucleic acid fragment analysis system.

DNA Electroporator

A DNA Electroporator is a physical instrument which entails high voltage pulses to create transient pores in cell membrane facilitating the entry of molecules such as DNA, RNA or proteins.                                                                    

A variety of applications have been developed that include:

-Loading genetic material into cells.

-Drug delivery into cells.

-Monoclonal antibody production.

-Cell-cell fusion.

-Cell-tissue fusion.

-Membrane protein insertion.

Courses entail training on ThermoHybaid Cellject Pro or Bio-Rad Gene-pulser Xcell.

Gel Imaging System

A gel imaging system is a high-quality instrument that allows imaging of multiplexed samples (e.g. one or two dimensional gels).

The applications that can be performed on this equipment include but not limited to:     

-Proteomic and genomic studies.

-1-D nucleic acid and protein gel analysis.

-2-D protein gel analysis.

-Western Blotting.

-Northern & Southern Blotting.

-Colony Counting.

-Dot and Slot blotting.

Training will be operated on the Bio-Rad VersaDoc MP system.

Flow Cytometer

Flow Cytometery is the technological process that allows for individual measurements of cell fluorescence and light scattering in liquid phase. This process is performed at rates of thousands of cells per second. It analyses physical and chemical properties of cells and can be used for the study of:


-DNA, RNA content and changes in cell cycle.

-DNA synthesis.

-Gene expression.

-Oxidative metabolism.

Training is performed on Flow cytometer FaCSCalibur (Becton Dickinson).